The Princely State of Narsinghgarh in the Malwa region
of Madhya Pradesh was ruled by the Kshtriya Parmar Rajput dynasty of
the Imperial Parmars of Malwa.
There were four Empires of the Parmars. No one dynasty, perhaps, ever
had four empires at intervals in world history.There is an old famous
Parmara Tani Prithvi
Prithvi Tana Parmar
(The Parmars rule the entire earth. The earth belongs to the Parmars.)
They were the Prithvi Pati (Lord of the Earth).
The first Parmar Empire was the Magadh Empire from
323 B.C. to 185 B.C with the capital at Patliputra (present day
Patna). Samrat Chandragupt Maurya, with help of the indomitable and an
unparalleled person known as Chanakya, became the first Emperor of this
dynasty in 323 B.C. Before ascending the throne of Magadh Chandragupt
was the prince of Pipli-Kanan a little known small Mauryan Kingdom
founded before 500 B.C. He ruled over a vast area of India and beyond.
He defeated the Greek ruler Selucus Niketor and married his daughter
Princess Cornilea Helen. The Greek Princess became the first foreign
Empress of India of European Lineage.
Ashok, the great, was the most famous ruler of this dynasty whose fame
and name spread beyond seven seas. He ruled over even a bigger Empire
than his grand father Chandragupt Maurya. He became Buddhist and spread
Buddhism in Sri Lanka, South East Asia, China and Far East.
The Chinese Emperors were beholden to Ashok the Great is well known.
Less publicized are the facts that the Indian Emperor Kanishk 78 - 106
A.D. defeated and forced the Chinese Emperor to accept his suzerainty.
The Chinese Emperors paid tributes and sent emissaries with lavish gifts
to the courts of Emperor Kanishk, to Emperor Samudragupt 325 - 375 A.D.
and his son Emperor Chandragupt Vikramaditya 375 - 413 A.D. and later
to Emperor Harsh 606 - 643 A.D.
The Second Parmar Empire was the Malwa Empire from
185 B.C. to 135 A.D. Samprati Maurya established this empire in 185
B.C. He forced his elder brother Samrat Brihadrath to bifurcate the
Magadh Empire into two halves in 185 B.C. The eastern half remained
with Brihadrath and the western half with Samprati. Ujjain was the
capital of Samprati Maurya which was also knows as Avantika. Soon after
the partition of the Magadh Empire Pushyamitra Shungdev, a Brahmin
Commander–in-chief of Brihadrath deposed and killed the Emperor and
occupied the throne of Magadh. That was the end of the Maurya dynasty
Raja Bhartruhari, also known as a great yogi, and his younger brother
the legendary Samrat Vikramaditya were the great grand sons of Samprati
Maurya. They were the most outstanding rulers of the second Parmar
Empire. During the rule of Vikramaditya, whose name and fame spread far
and wide, Ujjain became the Capital of India. More then 5200
years ago Bhagwan Shri Krishna and his elder brother Balram were
educated in various subjects and trained in different walks of life by
Maharshi Sandeepani in his Ashram situated at Avantika (Ujjain).
The city is also known colloquially as Mahakal ki Nagari and Vikram ki
Nagari. Before the advent of the British rule in India the Indian
standard time was taken from Ujjain.
The Third Parmar Empire was again the Magadh
Empire with the capital at Patliputra from 325 A.D. to 585 A.D. A
warrior of the Parmar dynasty Samudragupt established this empire in
325 A.D. He subjugated nearly the whole of India and beyond and
assumed the title of Maharajadhiraj. His son Samrat Chandragupt
Vikramaditya was as great a ruler as his father. The period of Gupt
empire is know as the golden age of Indian history.
The Fourth Parmar Empire was again the Malwa
Empire from 791 A.D. to 1216 A.D. with the Capital at Ujjain and later
on Dhar. Upendra a Parmar warrior, descendant from Samrat Vikramaditya
founded this empire in 791 A.D. The most famous rulers of this dynasty
were Vakpati Munj and Bhoj.
Munj, who assumed the title of Prithvi Vallabh, was a great scholar and
warrior and ruled from 973 A.D. to 1010 A.D. He Shifted his Capital
from Ujjain to Dhar. The late Sohrab Modi the famous Director, actor
and producer produced the historical film ‘Prithvi Vallabh’ which was a
grand success made in the fourth decade of the twentieth century.
His nephew the legendary and famous Raja Bhoj succeeded Munj. Bhoj
fought many battle and ruled over a vast empire from 1010 A.D. to 1055
A descendant of Raja Bhoj King Indraddhuman of Malwa built the temple of Lord Jagannath at Puri in Orissa.
The Gajapati Maharajas of Puri are the descendants of the builder of the Lord Jagannath temple.
The Maharajas of former Tehri Garhwal State in Uttarakhand are Parmar
Rajputs. The Ruler was revered as Bolta Badri (Living incarnation of God
Vishnu). Pilgrims who went to Badrinath for the ‘Darshan of the Lord,
on their return they must have the ‘Darshan’ of the Ruler at the State
Capital; otherwise their pilgrimage was not considered as complete.
Nepal was the only Hindu Kingdom in the world ruled by the
kings of the Parmar Rajput dynasty till 2008 A.D whereas the Ranas, the
former prime ministers of the country, are Sisodia Rajputs from Mewar.
Since the creation of Pakistan in 1947 A.D. The late Rana Chandra
Singhji had been the only minority Hindu minister till date in the
Islamic State of Pakistan. He was the minister in the Govt. of former
Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.
When Emperor Humayun was defeated by Sher Shah Suri in 1540, he
proceeded toward Persia through Sind. The then Rana of Umarkot gave him
shelter and protection. Emperor Akbar was born in Umarkot.. Hamida Bano,
the Queen of Emperor Humayun, gave birth to Akbar in 1540. The Emperor
could not offer presents to the people assembled hence he distributed
musk on the occasion. The Ruler of Umarkot remarked to the Emperor that
the name and fame of the newly born prince would spread all over the
world like the aroma of this musk. What prophetic words!
The Parmar Kings built two famous Forts of India - The Fort of Chittor and the Fort of Mandu.
The Chittor fort, the most historical fort in India, was built by
Chitrangad Maurya in the Mewar region of Rajasthan. It was the capital
of the Parmar Kings till Bapa Rawal wrested it from his maternal uncle
Man Singh Mori in 732AD. Thereafter it remained the capital of the
Sisodia Rajputs of Mewar till the 16th century A.D when Maharana Udai
Singh built a new capital in 1568 AD and named it Udaipur after his
name. The fort had the unique distinction of witnessing three Jauhars
which are unparallel in world history. On three occasions when Chittor
was attacked by the Muslim invaders the Rajput women in thousands threw
themselves voluntarily in the burning pyre preferring death to
dishonour. No race or country can boast of such a glorious tradition of
self - sacrifice to protect one's honour. Even the glory felt honoured
by this magnificent Rajput tradition which made Chittor an immortal
legend in Indian history. The first jauhar was performed in 1302 AD
when Sultan Allauddin Khilji of Delhi invaded Chittor and defeated
Maharana Ratan Singh.
The Second Jauhar took place in 1536AD when Bahadur Shah, the king of
Gujrat, attacked Chittor and defeated Queen Karnawati of Mewar, the
widow of Maharana Sanga. Queen Karnawati sought help from the Mughal
Emperor Humayun of Delhi. She sent a Rakhi dastoor to Humayun (a Rakhi
dastoor is a tradition where Hindu women tie Rakhi, a sacred thread, on
the right hand wrist of their brothers for protection in distress).
Humayun honoured the Rakhi dastoor of the Mewar Queen and marched
towards Chittor. But before he could reach everything was over. He came
across the bodies of the Rajput warriors and the burning ashes of the
women. He felt very sad that he could not save her so - called sister
Queen Karnawati of Mewar.
The third jauhar was performed in 1567 when the Mughal Emperor Akbar invaded Chittor and defeated Maharana Udai Singh of Mewar.
The Fort of Mandu (Mandavgarh) was built on the highest point of
Vindhyachal mountains in 1015 A.D by Raja Bhoj in the Malwa region of
Madhya Pradesh. When Muslims invaded Malwa in the 13th century they
made Mandu their capital. It remained the capital of the Muslim rulers
till the forces of Mughal Emperor Akbar defeated the Afghan Ruler Baz
Bahadur and Malwa became a part of the Mughal Empire.
Mandu is associated with a famous romantic love story between Sultan Baz
Bahadur and his consort Rani Rupmati. Bollywood produced a film 'Rani
Rupmati' which was a hit in the fifth decade of the 20th century.
Rani Rupmati belonged to Sarangpur a town 88 Km from Narsinghgarh which
was once a part of the former Narsinghgarh state. Later it became a
part of the Maratha state of Dewas.
The three most illustrious rulers of the Parmar dynasty of Malwa were Raja Bhartruhari, Samrat Vikramaditya and Raja Bhoj.
Raja Bhartruhari a great Sanskrit
scholar, who wrote highly literary treatise of Niti Shatak, Shrungar
Shatak and Vairagya Shatak. He renounced his throne and became a great
and famous yogi.
Samrat Vikramaditya succeeded his
elder brother Raja Bhartruhari. He was born in 102 BC and lived upto
15 AD. He ruled for 100 years. The legendary Samrat Vikramaditya of
Ujjain who defeated and threw out the foreign invaders out of India and
started his era in 57 B.C. known as the Vikram Samvat prevalent in
most parts of the country today. His grand son Shalivahan ruled from 25
A.D to 85 A.D. He defeated the Shaks and drove them out of India and
established his era in 78 AD known as Shak-Samvat which is now official
era of the Government of India. Beside whole of India, the empire of
Vikramaditya spread up to Central Asia and beyond Saudi Arabia. He built
the famous temple of Mahakal - one of the twelve Jyotirlings - at
Samrat Vikramaditya built the Ram Janmabhoomi temple at Ayodhya which
was destroyed by Abu Baki, the General of Emperor Babar, and
constructed the Babri Masjid instead. Samrat Vikramaditya also
constructed the Krishnajanmabhoomi temple at Mathura. The temple was
destroyed by Sikandar Lodi the King of Delhi. It was rebuilt by Bir
Singh Deo Bundela the ruler of Orchha. It was again raised to the ground
by Emperor Aurangzeb and constructed a mosque in its place.
The iron pillar (Loh Stambh also known as Vikram-Ki-Lat) at Mehrauli
(Delhi) is a metallurgical marvel of the craftsmen of Samrat
Vikramaditya. It has weathered the cold, heat and the rain for the last
two millennium without suffering any corrosion whatsoever.
Samrat Vikramaditya also constructed a Shiv temple "Mecceshwar Mahadev"
in Saudi Arabia and a Shiv temple at Baku, the present capital of
Azerbaijan. He was a great connoisseur of highly capable, intelligent,
talented and literary persons. He was the first Ruler in the World to
have "NAVRATNA" in his Raj Sabha (9 Gems in his court). These were the
persons who were the absolute masters of their subjects. Among them the
most famous and renowned were poet Kalidas who wrote immortal epics of
Meghdoot, Raghuvansh, Kumar Sambhav and Shakuntalam etc and the great
The present Kutub Minar at Mehrauli was an observatory, built by the
great astrologer Varahmihir of Samrat Vikramaditya, to study heavenly
bodies. It was then known as Meru Stamb. Kutub-ud-din-Aibak, the king
of Delhi of Slave dynasty, had the Aayaats of Koran’ inscribed on the
observatory tower and renamed it as Kutab Minar.
Emperor Vikramaditya was an unparalleled ruler in history. His
legends of “SINHASAN BATTISI” and “BETAL PACHCHEESI” are household
stories in the country. As a consequence many later day rulers of India
started keeping their names after the great Emperor of Ujjain. A
glaring example is that of Emperor Chandragupt Vikramaditya, son of
Emperor Samudragupt a mighty conqueror of the Parmar dynasty.
Chandragupt Vikramaditya ascended the throne of Magadh Empire at
Patliputra (present day Patna) in 375 A. D. whereas Emperor
Vikramaditya was ruling from Ujjain in 57 B. C. The difference between
the two is 432 years. How can they be one and the same person?
Whether this was done purposely or inadvertently by the foreign and
Indian historians during the British Raj in India is a subject to be
probed into. They had certainly messed up the history and perpetrated a
great injustice to a legendary and mighty Emperor. This should be a
matter of great concern.
Raja Bhoj: The famous Raja Bhoj
of Dhar (Dharanagri) of 11th Century A.D was a highly learned and a
wise ruler who ruled over a vast empire. He built the city of
Bhopal the capital of the present state of Madhya Pradesh.
He was constructing a Shiv temple at Bhojpur, 24 K.m. from Bhopal, which
he could not complete during his life time. This temple has the
biggest Shivling in India.
When Raja Bhoj, a devout Shiv Bhakta, came to know of the attack by
Sultan Mehmood Ghaznavi, the Afghan ruler, on the famous Jyotirling
temple of Somnath in Gujarat; he marched on the Muslim ruler. When
Ghaznavi was informed that Raja Bhoj was coming with a powerful army
and had already blocked his retreat via Rajasthan, he fled to
Afghanistan through the Rann of Kachchh and the Thar Desert of
Rajasthan. As a result much of his army perished in the most
inhospitable land due to lack of water and food. He was, further,
attacked and plundered by the Bhati Rajputs in the Thar Desert. With
great difficulty he saved his life and reached Ghazni with the residue
force. After that Mehmood never dared look towards India. Raja Bhoj
died in 1055 A.D.
There is a famous Sanskrit saying on the death of Raja Bhoj
NIRADHARA NIRALAMBA NIRASHRITE SARASWATI
PUNDITA KHANDITA SARVE BHOJRAJE DIVANGATE
*(On the death of Raja Bhoj the Saraswati, Goddess of
Learning, had become without base, without shelter & without
the intellectual learned persons were broken into complete disarray.)
No Ruler in the world has ever received such a praiseworthy and
magnificent tribute. When two persons are not comparable in any way,
for them there is a popular saying in the country “Kahan Raja Bhoj aur
Kahan Gangu Teli” is used today to describe two opposite units of
wisdom and learning.
The Royal Family of Narsinghgarh is the descendant of Umat the son of Raja Bhoj. The present ruler Maharaja Bhanu Prakash Singh is the 45th from Raja Bhoj and 101st PARMAR ruler from Samrat Vikramaditya.